This is an updated version of an earlier post. I wanted to check that links provided then would still work on the CWGC website.
You can use the CWGC’s search tools to locate war graves in British cemeteries, including those of our allies from the old Empire and those from the opposing side—the very victims of war whose graves, we should remember, are unlikely to have been visited much, if at all.
You can find burials without specifying the names of particular people. In fact, when it comes to filling in the search boxes, and even when you think you have the ‘correct’ info, the adage ‘less is more’ usually applies.
FIRST FIND THE CEMETERIES NEAR YOU THAT HAVE COMMONWEALTH WAR GRAVES
The easiest way to do this, is to allow the CWGC to know your current location.
Click on the link and go to this page: https://www.cwgc.org/visit-us/find-cemeteries-memorials/
Under the very first search box (for entering a country) you will see the hyperlink Use my current location. Click on it and it will generate a list, usually in order of distance from the point at which you currently are. You can scroll down the list or choose the option to view the cemeteries on a map which, if you’re in a place you’re not too familiar with, helps you to see which are within easy range.
Searching via your current location
There are also two options to filter the results. The most useful one is View as Map, which enables you to see where a cemetery is in relation to where you are.
The buttons for the options to (1) Refine results OR (2) View as map.
In the next example, the train I was on was paused at a signal and the Allerton Bywater (St Mary) Churchyard was at the top of the search results.
Arthur Marchant is the first name on the list of nine servicemen, four from WW2 and five from WW1. In Arthur’s case there is a photograph of his grave. Where a photo exists, paying attention to landmarks in the background, will make it easier for you to find the grave when you visit the cemetery.
FIND YOUR FELLOW COUNTRYMEN OR COUNTRYWOMEN
Here are some tips for finding the war grave of your fellow countryman or countrywoman!
Go to this page: https://www.cwgc.org/find-records/find-war-dead/
Skip the Last name and First name boxes, unless you have a particular individual in mind.
In the box Served with (country), choose a country close to your heart. If you’re looking for a fellow Kiwi, you might choose New Zealand.
In the box, Commemorated in (country), choose the country in which you’re looking for war graves or memorials.
Looking for someone from New Zealand commemorated in the United Kingdom.
Scroll down and press the Search button (bottom, left).
This generates the details of 2104 New Zealanders in Commonwealth War Graves or commemorated on War memorials in the United KIngdom. That’s a big number. You might now want to narrow down the results with additional filters, such as the location of the cemeteries.
WHAT ABOUT FINDING CIVILIAN DEAD?
Choose them in the box Served in (army, etc). The etcetera cover Air Force, Army, the Merchant Navy, Civilian War Dead, Merchant Navy, Miscellaneous and Navy. The Navy needing no further description is the Royal Navy—the maritime branch of our military forces.
WHAT IF YOU CAN’T FIND YOUR COUNTRY IN THE ‘SERVED WITH’ LIST?
You may have noticed some countries are missing. Let’s say you’re interested in finding someone from the West Indies or West Africa.
A temporary fix would be to use the Regiment field, and to enter a unit that you know hails from that region. You may need to use a search engine to find the names of the regiments that served with the British forces. If you’re looking for someone from the Caribbean, say, you could choose a regiment such as the British West Indies Regiment. That delivers 1493 individuals, worldwide.
Now you need to narrow down this number by country so that you find results that are in the country in which you will be looking for CWGC graves. For that you need to scroll down the page as far as the heading ADDITIONAL FIELDS. Select the option Country (commemorated in). When that box opens up you will select United Kingdom. (You may have noticed this category has more options, such as Antigua and Barbuda, and Jamaica on the drop-down list.)
Click the search button and you will generate a list of the graves or panels that commemorate 135 individuals from that regiment. Scroll down to find war graves near you. Note carefully the details for the individuals of interest. Be aware that the CWGC numbering is not always the same as the numbering in the original Grave Registration documents for that cemetery.
In somewhat random fashion, during War Graves Week last year, I went to Rosebank Cemetery in Leith, with an eye out for Commonwealth War Graves. Scottish cemeteries often have obelisks and tall headstones that make it less easy to pick out the CWGC headstones among them. I am always looking for the people who are overlooked—women, Allied soldiers and airmen, buried so far from home, seamen in the Merchant Navy and civilian dead.
On the following day, I tackled Edinburgh’s Eastern Cemetery, chosen because it is also within easy walking distance for me.
In both cemeteries, I photographed many CWGC headstones, but the ones I chose to research were chosen afterwards at home, almost at random, and when I set about researching, I found stories that I could never have imagined. In my research, I start with the information in the matching CWGC entry. Often the sparse details provided, prove incorrect, and other important, helpful details, like ages and the names of next-of-kin are missing. Don’t let that deter you. You start with broken threads, and end up with a fairly neatly woven tapestry.
You can find posts on some of those I found and researched on my newest blog, PassersbyRemember, set up to cover accidental discoveries, rather than the planned research that results in posts on my other War Memorial blogs.
Here’s the web address:
An introductory aside here, for anyone who has not come to this blog post via my post on Adriana’s husband, Georg Jacob Wiehahn. I am aware of some inaccuracies on online family trees relating to this couple, based on misunderstandings or mis-transcriptions of records, rather than on the original records themselves. If you have relied purely on extracts for these records provided by Family Search in the past, you may not be aware that many of the 19th century Church records on Family Search have been indexed with the corresponding images now accessible online. It is always preferable to view the original record where you can. Because of the additional information provided in the DRC and Lutheran registers, this post reveals perhaps more about the records than the life story of Adriana Jacoba’s life. I hope that the lists of sources at the end of the post will help direct you to the documents I have viewed, and discussed in this account, and also that they are useful to you in your research of this family.
I am one of the many great grandchildren of Jacoba Adriana Wiehahn (1854–1932), one of the daughters of Gerrit Adam Wiehahn (1817–1892) and Cornelia Sophia van der Poll (1823–1891). Known always as Adriana, my great grandmother, Jacoba Adriana Wiehahn, was named after her paternal grandmother, the subject of this post. She is regarded as the Stamm-Mutter of the South African Wiehahns, and is recorded in most of the baptismal records of her eleven children as Jacoba Adriana van den Burg (or van den Berg). Sometimes, as with her marriage record, the Adriana is written first, suggesting that it may have been the name by which she was familiarly known within her family and community. For consistency, I will refer to her by her first name, Jacoba and to my great grandmother as Adriana, the name by which she was known within our branch of the family.
I learnt many years ago, from the historian Professor J.S. Marais, that the surname van de Berg very often indicated that the person concerned was ‘a person of colour’ as he cautiously expressed it. So when, a few years later, I discovered that I had in my Wiehahn line an ancestor named Jacoba Adriana van der (or den) Berg, who had been born during the Dutch Occupation of the Cape of Good Hope, I knew that she could well be a descendant of one of the indigenous peoples, or of an ‘immigrant’ slave or servant. Other indications of mixed race in those early communities were ‘suffixes’, such as van de Caap, van de Caab or van de Cabo (all three meaning of the Cape), which were applied in the absence of an official surname, just as Catharina van Colombo would describe a woman from what is now Sri Lanka.
Some time ago I located, via Family Search, digital images of the baptisms of eleven children born to Jacoba and her husband Georg Jacob Wiehahn but it was not until the first of the 2020 pandemic lockdowns that I had time to try to find the record for their marriage.
1798 Marriage Record for Georg Jacob Wiehahn and Adriana Jacoba van de Caap The snip below is an extract from the register that records Adriana’s marriage to Georg Jacob Wiehahn. This particular marriage register has been digitised, but not indexed, so the entire film needs to be browsed in order to view the page on which the marriage is recorded. I started about the time of the birth of their eldest child, Anna Elisabeth Wiehahn in 1799, and then ‘paged’ backwards in the register until I found this record for their marriage:
[The marriage record for George Jacob Wiehahn and Adriana Jacoba van de Caap.]
Eleven marriages are noted against the date of the event, written in the margin as 2 xber 1798. This translates to 2 December 1798, with an abbreviation for December (xber) which dates back to the time of the Julian Calendar when the new year began in March, December being the tenth month of the year. X is the Roman numeral replacing the decem (the Latin word for ten, as in December. Theirs is the first marriage in the above snip.
I included in my snip the two marriage records that followed theirs, because I noticed they also involved women identified without surnames, and whose origin was described as van de Caap. You will note that Georg is described as a Jongman (bachelor) and van Orlishausen (from Orlishausen), which matches the place listed for him on the pay ledger of the ship Buitenverwachting in the VOC Opvaarenden records. It looks to me as if the minister or clerk had begun to write a surname for our Adriana Jacoba because it appears to me that the vanhas been struck out. This could suggest he intended, in her case, to record van den Burg/h but perhaps decided, or was formally informed, that this was not her legitimate surname. It was a genealogy-happy-dance-worthy occasion to get confirmation of Orlishausen as a match with the man on the Buitenverwachting and to know that he was a bachelor at the time of his marriage to Jacoba. (Saved me from looking for earlier marriages!) In addition, having Jacoba recorded without a ‘proper’ surname, with her origins described as van de Caap, had been absent from every other record I had, until then, found for her.
Apart from the entries for family members in the early Cape Directories, the baptisms of all their children, and the death notices, for as many as I have been able to find so far, I have not yet learnt very much about the married life of this couple. We know that during their marriage, the Stellenbosch kerk was their ‘local’ church, and that the birthplace of their children was often noted as Caapsche Duine (Cape Dunes) which were probably somewhere in the sandy area known as the Cape Flats. In those same children’s Death Notices, however, the birthplace of their children was frequently given with the more precise location of Kuilsrivier. They do not appear to have lost any children in infancy and on the whole their children made what their parents would have regarded as ‘satisfactory’ marriages.
The baptisms of Georg and Jacoba’s children record the respective Getuige/Getuie—the witnesses, or godparents—for each child, and give us some idea of their parents’ network of family and of their close associates. From these eleven baptisms, I have been able to identify two relatives, potentially Jacoba’s parents, who are recorded as witnesses in four of the baptismal entries.
Key Witnesses at the baptisms of the Wiehahn children
The last of three witnesses recorded at the baptism, in 1799, of Georg and Jacoba’s first child, Anna Elisabeth, was Ger[ri]t van den Burg. It’s a high frequency Dutch surname, so one has to be wary of jumping to conclusions with regard to any relationship. However, an uncle or grandfather was often asked to be one of the witnesses at the baptism of his nephews or grandchildren.
At this point I began to pay attention to Gert van den Burg. Gert is a nickname for Gerrit, and I also knew that, in 1817, the name was given to the couple’s youngest son, Gerrit Adam Wiehahn. At that time, the traditional naming patterns were often followed within the Lutheran and Calvinist churches, whereby the first daughter in the family was named after the maternal grandmother. And in this family, Anna Elisabeth was that first-born daughter.
Moving on to the baptism, in 1801, of their second child, Johan Carel, the last of five witnesses was recorded as Anna Elisabeth van de Caap. It was at this point, that I began to wonder whether this Anna Elisabeth might be the maternal grandmother of the Wiehahn children—their first daughter having been given the names Anna Elisabeth. If Georg and Jacoba were following the traditional naming pattern, then, if de Villiers and Pama were correct in identifying his paternal grandfather as Christian Valentin Wiehahn, why had he not received at least one of the names of his putative grandfather? The ‘leading’ witness at the baptism was Carel Solg, perhaps a particularly close friend, while another of the five witnesses was the infant’s uncle, Johann Christoph Wiehahn.
At the baptism in 1815, of their tenth child, Petrus Johannes, Gerrit Adam van den Burg was a witness, this time the fourth of five witnesses. (We can’t be sure that he was the same Gert who had been a witness in 1801.)
And finally, their eleventh and last child, born 31 December 1817, was baptised Gerrit Adam. The name Gerrit Adam would, in time, be given to several of this infant’s grandsons, one of whom was my beloved grandfather.
It is beginning to feel as if we may have identified here a significant male relative—perhaps a grandfather, or an uncle—of Adriana Jacoba van de Caap, who, in all records except her marriage record, is recorded with a surname in one or other form of van den Burg/Burgh or Berg.
Death of Georg Jacob Wiehahn
After the death of Georg Jacob on 8 June 1819, life must have become more difficult for his widow and for their eleven children, all under the age of 20 with six of them under the age of 12.
In 1820, their eldest child, Anna Elisabeth, married an Italian immigrant, Felix Orlandini, and settled in the village of Stellenbosch. About that time, Jacoba seems to have transferred her church membership from Stellenbosch to Cape Town. The following year she married, in Cape Town, a widower, Johan Christiaan Loock, a long-time family associate, and a witness at the baptism of at least one of Jacoba’s grandchildren. Johan Loock had children from a previous marriage, so their marriage enabled them to share the role of raising, and providing for, the younger children of both previous marriages.
Death of Anna Elisabeth van den Burgh (c.1750–1834) My lockdown research bore further fruit when I found the official notice for the death, in Stellenbosch, on 24 February 1834, of Anna Elisabeth van der Burgh. This records her birthplace as Cape of Good Hope. It includes the following information:
Names of the parents of the Deceased: Unknown.
Age of the Deceased: 84 years.
Condition in Life: no occupation of late, was formerly married to a Farmer.
Married or Unmarried, Widower or Widow: Widow of Gerrit van der Burgh.
At what House, or Where the Person died: at Felix Orlandini in the village ofStellenbosch.
Names of the Children of the Deceased, and whether Minors or Majors: Jacoba van der Burgh, Widow of Johan Christiaan Loock and formerly married to Georg Jacob Wiehahn.
Whether Deceased has left any Property, and of what Kind: no property whatsoever having been supported at the sole Expence (sic) of Felix Orlandini, the Subscriber hereto.
Felix Orlandini (1780–1849) made his mark to confirm the information he had given about “Anna Elisabeth van den Burg”, his wife’s maternal grandmother, for whom he had provided in her old age.
Taken at face value, this document seems to confirm that Jacoba’s parents were Gerrit van den Burgh and Anna Elisabeth “van den Burgh” (who is almost certainly the Anna Elisabeth van de Caap, who was a witness at Johan Carel’s baptism in 1801). This ties in with the striking out of the beginnings of a surname, that van in the 1798 marriage record so that no surname was provided for Adriana Jacoba, but merely a place of origin, namely, van de Caap. I am not certain whether, or at what point, Gerrit and Anna were married. The document notes that Jacoba was the only child born to Anna Elisabeth. This is helpful in that a person of interest, the 72 year old Gerrit van den Berg, who died “beyond the Boundaries” aged 72 in 1839, husband of Maria van Biljoen (sic), was too young to have been Jacoba’s father, though it is not sufficient to exclude his having perhaps been Jacoba’s legitimate half-brother. This Gerrit would have been born in 1766 or 1767, if the age given for him on 26 July 1839 is correct. He would have been eleven years older than Jacoba.
Death of the Widow Wiehahn, female progenitor of the Wiehahns (c.1778–1835)
Jacoba died the year after her mother, on 6 July 1835, at 5 Piper Street, Cape Town. She was then inher fifty eighth year, which should be interpreted as not yet 58 at the time of her death, giving Jacoba’s birth as having been on a date from 7 July 1777 to 6 July 1778. Her death notice helpfully identifies her birthplace as Cape Town. The informant for her death was her second daughter, Catharina Jacoba Jacobsz, whose first child, Adriana Jacoba Catharina Jacobsz, had been born the previous year, barely a week after the death of her great grandmother, Anna Elisabeth and named after her maternal grandmother.
There is a line in this death notice that is puzzling and that is the names provided for Jacoba’s parents. Death certificates often have errors, partly because the informant is often a close family member, who may be suffering from shock or grief. Also, if the informant is performing this role for the first time, he or she may be unprepared, for all the questions that will be asked. If innumerate and illiterate, the task is much more difficult.
The names of Jacoba Adriana’s parents as recorded on her death notice.
I think the line reads G [H?] van den Burg & Joh[ann]a Elis[abeth] but the surname at the end of the lineis less clear than the others: Here’s what I make of the letters, with question marks representing a letter that’s not clear: ?i?ha? OR ?i?he?
Taking the three problematic letters in the last word, the initial capital is most likely to be an M, possibly a W, or even an N or an H.
The second problematic letter is either a, c or e. The letter d is not impossible though it would affect the following letter, which I’ve assumed to be the letter h.
The third problematic letter (or letters) could be l, ll, le.
Of course, Wiehahn is a fairly obvious name that would fit the ?i?ha? pattern, but no Wiehahns have been found in the Dutch and the VOC records matching a woman of child-bearing age in the Cape of Good Hope when Jacoba was born.
Surnames, besides Wiehahn, that would fit around the visible letters are the surnames Micha[u] or Michell, perhaps the most likely. I could not find a potential Johanna Elisabeth, but I did find an Anna Elisabeth Michiels, the mother of Maria Margaretha, who was baptised in Cape Town, in 1759, the father being named as Fredrik Jacob Wesler.
This month it will be two years since I first came across this death notice, and was so astonished by the names provided for Jacoba’s parents that I remember exactly where I was at the time. I’m a little miffed with myself that I haven’t yet any further information that could decide whether or not Catharina Jacoba understood the question, or whether she was confused. It’s not uncommon to realise that mistakes are made, even with regard to relationships, when a grandchild is the informant at the time of death.
The challenge here is with Item 3 on the death notice, in which the informant has to provide the names of the deceased’s parents. Here, Catharina records her grandmother as Johanna Elisabeth, rather than as Anna Elisabeth. Catharina would surely have known that her elder sister was named for their maternal grandmother. Did she assume that the name Anna was a nickname for Johanna?
A year earlier, Catharina and her husband had followed the traditional naming pattern in naming their elder daughter after her maternal grandmother. I should also make clear that, while Catharina’s signature does not quite match the handwriting of the person who filled in the rest of the death notice there are enough similarities for me not to be completely sure it was not someone else’s handiwork. In the latter case, if there was an intermediary between Catharina and the receiving official, there would be more opportunities for error.
Gerrit Adam van den Burg is almost certainly Jacoba’s father and it seems probable that Anna Elisabeth van de Caap, also known as Anna Elisabeth van den Burg, is Jacoba’s mother.
There were earlier van den Bergs at the Cape. Eight weesmeisjes (orphaned girls) from Rotterdam were sent to the Cape in 1687, arriving in Cape Town on the Berg China in 1688. They were intended as wives for some of the Dutch bachelors at the Cape. One of the orphans was Adriaantje Jacobsz van der Berg but she is not under consideration here, since she married a man whose surname was not van der Berg.
I’d also like to point out that there was at least one Dutch settler with the surname van der Berg in the early days of the Dutch settlement at the Cape of Good Hope and that he had descendants, of whom Gerrit van den Burgh could conceivably have been one.
I would welcome comments on my arguments, and look forward to hearing any theories you might have on the interpretation of the documents to which I have referred.
How to replicate my research, if only to satisfy yourself
Please note that you should be able to find most of the records fairly easily on Family Search. With the marriage record, however, you will need to apply the advice I give, below, for finding the image that has the Wiehahn record. Make sure to restrict the location for your search to South Africa, before you enter the search terms in their relevant boxes. Alternatively, digital images of all the records can be viewed at the Family History Library in Utah, or at your nearest Family History Centre or Family Search Affiliated Library.
Useful Websites Family Search’s Search Page, https://www.familysearch.org/search/, accessed 19/10/2020. Start by clicking on the continent of Africa, on the map under the heading Research By Location. Then scroll down the pop-up list of countries, and click on South Africa. Only then should you fill in the names of interest. Do not click on the small boxes next to First Names and Last Names as there are often variations in the spelling of names within records for the same person. ‘Find a Family History Center (sic) and Family Search Affiliated Libraries’, https://www.familysearch.org/help/fhcenters/locations/, accessed 19/10/2020.
List of documents These are the documents mentioned in this account and all are available to view and download on Family Search. I will shortly upload a post providing a list of the various godparents at each of the eleven baptisms. If this will be useful to you in your research, I suggest you follow my blog so that you can be notified when I upload new posts.
1798 Marriage of Georg Jacob Wiehahn and Adriana Jacoba van de Caap, Cape Town. You can access this record using the FHL Film No 008039065. I can save you time here—it’s image number 690 of 876 . (You’re welcome! 😉) It will have a number of subsets, so use the image numbers to leap along until you find yourself in a section that has 876 images. The original records are included in the Cape Dutch Reformed Church Records, reference G1/13/5 ‘Cape Town Marriages 1790–1800’.
1799 Baptism of Anna Elisabeth Wiehahn She married firstly, Felix Orlandini in 1820, and secondly William McDonald in 1849, whom she married soon after Felix’s death of Felix. Felix’s own death notice reveals that he and Anna were officially separated at the time of his death.
1801 Baptism of Johan Carel Wiehahn I have not yet found further records for Johan Carel. He may be the Carel Wiehahn who was a witness at the christening of Carel Wilhelmus van Druten in 1835, the son of his sister, Maria Isabella Wiehahn. There are several Carels in subsequent generations of Wiehahns but all would have been too young to be the Carel who was a godfather in 1835.
1815 Baptism of Petrus Johannes Wiehahn He married Johanna Hendrica Smit, daughter of Abraham François Smit.
1817 Baptism of Gerrit Adam Wiehahn He married Cornelia Sophia van der Poll, daughter of Hendrik van der Poll and Susanna Maria Vermaak.
1834 Death of Anna Elisabeth van den Burg, Stellenbosch
1835 Death of Jacoba Adriana van den Burg, Cape Town
Genealogical Periodicals Genealogical Society of South Africa, Genesis, Ball, R[ichard], Weesmeisies, Issue 15, July 2007, p.6–12. This isalso available on the eGGSA website, https://www.eggsa.org/articles/Weesmeisies.htm accessed 19/10/2020.
Among the benefits of the Lockdown, along with the birdsong, was having time to tie up some loose ends relating, for once, to my own forebears. Research into two Deutschmann servicemen for one of my war memorial blogs, South Africa Remembers, had reignited my interest in, and curiosity about, people of German descent who served in the British Army during the First World War. I became curious about the role my relatives of German descent might have played in WW1 and WW2.
But when I found them, I found gaps in the information available for their parents, particularly for the Wiehahn who died in Germany while a prisoner of war, a victim of the 1918 pandemic. I realised that this would require what amounted to a #OneNameStudy for the Wiehahns of at least the first two or three generations. I subsequently found that, besides our POW in Germany, back in South Africa a number of young Wiehahn men of his generation were also losing their lives in that pandemic.
This led to a decision to review what I knew of this couple, from research I had done in the 1970s, into the ancestry of my Wiehahn great grandmother, herself a granddaughter of the progenitor (stamvader or Stammvater) of the Wiehahns of South Africa.
Georg Jacob Wiehahn (c.1767–1819) has long been identified as the Wiehahn progenitor. He is listed as such in Christoffel de Villiers’ opus, Die Geslagregisters van die Ou Kaapse Families. A significantly revised edition of this book by Pama, in 1981, was followed by Die Groot Afrikaans Familie-naamboek, in 1983. The Wiehahn entry in the latter, summarised and transcribed by Pieter Conradie, closely resembles what I remember of the original entry in de Villiers & Pama. It translates as follows:
Georg Jacob WIEHAHN, from Orlishausen (Germany), born 15.4.1767, son of Christian Valentin WIEHAHN and Catharina Elisabeth WÜRZBURG. Soldier 1786; [later] left the service, and [became a] carpenter at Kuilsrivier. Died 8.6.1819. Married 2.12.1798 to Adriana Jacoba VAN DEN BURG (10 children).
Georg Jacob was indeed a carpenter at Kuilsrivier, and at some point he employed, as a house carpenter (huistimmerman) in his business, his younger brother, Johann Christoph (c.1774–1824), sometimes recorded as Johan Christiaan. Johan Christoph has also been reported in the past as having followed his brother to Southern Africa.
One of the benefits of returning to South African research after a long interval, has been that, increasingly, more records for the 19th century are being made accessible online, including, in recent years, some VOC records, which provided further information about Georg Jacob and his brother Johann Christoph.
I was intrigued to discover, when I accessed Wie Was Wie, that passenger lists (Opvarenden records) listed two Wiehahns in the records of the Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, (VOC) —the Dutch East India Company.
The two Wiehahns turned out to be, as I’d hoped, Georg Jacob and Johan Christoph Wiehahn, and the record listing them was a pay ledger for the Company’s vessel, the Buitenverwachting, for the years 1794 to 1795. As this date fits in with Georg Jacob’s arrival “at about the time of the First British Occupation” of the Cape of Good Hope, I immediately set to work to find the related images.
The brothers appear in this ledger on consecutive spreads in the Scheepssoldijboek (Pay Ledger) for the Buitenverwachting, a ship built in 1789 for the Chamber of Amsterdam. (Each Company employee is recorded across a spread of two pages.) The ledger records, for both brothers, their entry into the service of the VOC on 5 May 1794 which seems to contradict the old story that his younger brother followed Georg to Southern Africa—though, you will see that there is an alternative explanation for this.
Georg is recorded in the pay ledger as arriving at the Cape on 20 September 1794.
Here’s a glimpse of part of the record for Georg Jacob as provided in the pay ledger.
The ledger also notes that the brothers were born in Orlishausen, which is in Sömmerda, in Thuringia. For anyone inclined to maak ‘n draai, it’s not far from Weimar. However, the record for the death of Johan Christoff (sic) Wiehahn in Cape Town, on 12 April 1824, recorded his birthplace differently, as Leibzig in Saxen, the city we now know as Leipzig.
According to the Buitenverwachting‘s pay ledger, each brother was employed by the Company with a contract to perform the function of a huistimmerman, (house carpenter) and it appears to have been VOC policy that, in contrast to the ship’s carpenter, house carpenters would not work onboard, and that their service as carpenters would commence only after his arrival in Asia.
Georg Jacob left the service on 10 October 1794, the reason given for his ‘departure’ from the service being that he had not appeared for the inspection or roll call—Niet bij de monstering verschenen. Next, it notes the reason for his absence as his having been missing (vermist). Since he was expected to appear for the monstering, perhaps before the Buitenverwachting sailed for Batavia, it seems possible that he simply decided quietly to abscond.
It is possible that Johan Christoph continued his voyage to Asia on the Buitenverwachting when it sailed on 10 October. It completed its voyage to Dutch East India on 29 January 1795. The pay ledger entries suggest that Johan Christoph might, in contrast to his brother, have worked off part of his debt, either on the voyage or in Asia. However, his records show Johan as leaving the service at the Cape, but without providing an associated date or stating the reason for his departure from the Company’s service. The reason for leaving was laatse vermelding, which was used to describe a situation where a reason was not given, not known, or unclear. Johan’s account in the ledger was not, however, closed.
After 1795 there are no entries for the brothers until June 1803 when there is an entry for each brother, made four months after the British returned the Cape of Good Hope to the Batavian Republic. The timing suggests that the time lag between the entries, was because of the capture of the Dutch Colony in 1795, and that the Cape’s relatively brief return to Dutch hands probably resulted in some tidying up to settle debts or missed payments. The entries in 1803 concern a further payment with regard to a Schuld (obligation or debt), the amount recorded being greater for Georg than for his brother.
Initially Georg employed his brother in his own business, as a house carpenter, but Johan subsequently set up shop in his own right, as a cabinetmaker in Cape Town, where the African Court Calendar, lists him at 21 Plein Street. An entry in the register in which Johan’s death, on 12 April 1824, is recorded, helpfully provides his age at death precisely, as 50 years, 3 months and 11 days, giving him a date of birth of 1 January 1774. Johan had married, in 1806, Gesina Cristina Ahlers, widow of Johann Heinrich Wulff. The couple had two daughters, Gesina Cristina and Maria Catarina. As far as I can discover, Johan had no surviving sons, so, apart from his daughters, those with the surname Wiehahn, are descended from Georg Jacob and his wife, Adriana.
Stay tuned! Georg Jacob’s story is continued in the post for his wife, Adriana Jacoba.
A blog post on what the baptisms of their children reveal about the family’s social network in the first two decades of the 19th century will be uploaded on a later date. If you follow my blog, you will automatically receive a notification when I upload a new post.
Documents that have made it possible to find this information now
1. Family Search has made digitised images of South African records accessible online. I found I could access the record for Georg Jacob’s marriage, as well as the baptisms of his eleven children. Finding his marriage, however, involved browsing the register, going backwards through the register, starting with the baptism of their first child. The marriage record confirmed that Georg was a bachelor and also provided a significant, but not unexpected, piece of information about his wife, Adriana Jacoba.
2. The baptisms of the first generation of Wiehahns are also now accessible on Family Search, and were more informative than is the case with similar records in England, Scotland and Wales. The records provided the date, and place, of birth of each child, as well as the date and place of their baptisms, but with the added bonus of listing at least three witnesses/godparents. It was interesting to gain some knowledge of their associates and those within their more intimate circle.
3. The National Archives of the Netherlands take seriously their role as custodians, rather than as sole owners, of public records, and therefore make it possible for us to access a wide range of digitised records online, at no cost.
For those who are interested in following up the VOC Opvaarenden lists, I also intend to upload a post which will demonstrate and explain the steps I took to access the relevant images. This will be uploaded to this blog, my professional blog. If anyone were to express a particular interest, I will prioritise that post!
Abbreviations DEIC: Dutch East India Company VOC: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie
Sources Conradie, P., ‘WIEHAHN, Georg[e] Jacob Wiehahn’ https://www.stamouers.com/stamouers/surnames-v-z/620-wiehahn-georg-jacob, accessed 22/9/2020.
de Villiers, C.C. and Pama, C., Die Geslagregisters van die Ou Kaapse Families, 1966, revised 1981.
Family Search, https://www.familysearch.org/en/, accessed 26/
Genealogiese Genootskap van Suid Afrika, Rekeningen uit de Scheepssoldijboeken, https://documents-at-eggsa.org/main.php?g2_itemId=1057235, accessed 23/9/2020. This web page is in English, despite the Dutch title, and provides background to the Accounts from Ships’ Pay Ledgers.
Nationaal Archief, Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), Opvaarenden, Nummer Toegang 1.04.02, Inventaris nr. 6842, folionummer 180, ‘George Jacob Wiehahn’.
Nationaal Archief, Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie (VOC), Opvaarenden, Nummer Toegang 1.04.02, Inventaris nr. 6842, folionummer 181, ‘Johan Christoph Wiehahn’.
Pama, C., ‘Wiehahn, Georg Jacob’, Die Groot Afrikaanse Familie-naamboek, https://www.stamouers.com/stamouers/surnames-v-z/620-wiehahn-georg-jacob, accessed 16/9/2020. 1983 edition.
TANAP, ‘Layout of the Ship’s Pay Ledgers of the Six Chambers of the VOC, 1700–1795), http://tanap.nl/content/voc/appendices/payledgers.htm, accessed 23/9/2020.
Wie Was Wie, https://www.wiewaswie.nl/, accessed 23/9/2020. This is the Dutch language version. There is a link on its home page to the English site, which will be useful for understanding descriptions and instructions, if your Dutch or Afrikaans is rusty or non-existing. Or you can simply go to https://www.wiewaswie.nl/en/.
Deutschmann #2 was a German sailor, Werner Deutschmann, who died aged 21 on 13 July 1946 and is buried in Darlington Cemetery. His story will have to wait, but he will be remembered as well.
Deutschmann #3 , Edward William Deutschmann turned up after I’d found basic details of the first two men via the database of War Dead maintained by the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
I found this third Deutschmann while seeking further information on Herbert Deutschmann from digitised documents in South African archives, and happened, as one does, to come across another Deutschmann in the official South African Death Notices for Edward William Deutschmann, formerly a Trader’s Assistant and killed while on Active Service on 12 April 1918. Why had I not found him sooner on the CWGC database?
This Death Notice revealed that Edward had been born in Johannesburg, the son of Edward and Emma Deutschmann and was aged 28 years and 6 months at the time of his death, on 12 April 1918, while on active service in France. He is commemorated on the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial, despite his death being within the given dates for the Pozières Memorial which commemorates most of the South Africans without a known grave, and killed during the first weeks of the Kaiserschlacht.
Edward’s case puzzled me immediately, because his name did not seem to appear on the CWGC list nor could I find him, using wild cards, via the usually extraordinarily helpful South African War Graves Project. It wasn’t impressed by my wildcards, so I knew I should focus on finding a military document on which his name was recorded.
It was the use of the most basic of wild cards that got me there. Here is the search I undertook after my initial failure to find him the ‘normal’ way.
The most straightforward wildcard to use is the asterisk (*). It’s easy and powerful. Each search engine has its own peculiarities as to what each wildcard actually represents, but with most of them, you can apply the asterisk within your search syntax in an easily defined way. An asterisk placed in your search syntax can represent simultaneously three possibilities:
There is no character (letter) filling the place of the asterisk;
there are two characters filling the place of the asterisk; OR
there are any number of characters filling the place of the asterisk.
I eventually begin to hoover up records for Edward, after I searched the Register of Soldiers’ Effects using the wild card D*t*man* for the soldier’s name. This series is one of my favourites when stuck for records for WW1 servicemen. You can also use it with Commonwealth servicemen. Their next of kin would receive any payments due via their respective High Commissioners.
Notice how few of the characters in the surname are represented in my search term. I couldn’t be sure how an English ear might transcribe either the German “eu” or the German “tsch” so I went for a space where the eu might fit, and reduced the tsch sound to a single t which I felt was likely to be one of the sounds most easily identified. (I would have tried again with ch instead of the t, had I not found the result I needed.)
I didn’t want to exclude a ‘mann’ ending either, hence the third asterisk, though I don’t think it was really necessary.
Here’s what resulted:
Result: 5 Dutchmans, 2 Dettmans, and 2 Deutchmans. Once I knew how Edward’s surname had been spelt in this document, I was able to use that spelling to find his records in other army documents.
And if I can sneak in another extremely useful family history research tip…
Where the speaker’s accent (when providing his or her name) might be a factor in your failure to find a record matching what you are convinced is the only spelling for that name, try suspending that conviction. Replace vowels, wherever they appear in the name with an asterisk. So my D*t*man* above, could have been further reduced to D*t*m*n*.
Testing (for your benefit) the omission of the vowel a between m and n, got me all nine of the above servicemen and also a tenth. He was 10889 Acting Corporal Arthur Henry Dotamone of the Essex Regiment. Arthur was killed on 1 July 1916, on the first day of the Battle of the Somme.
If your interest in ‘my’ Deutschmanns has been aroused, there are links to my posts on Edward and Herbert from the hyperlinks below. Visitors help as currently curious, modern-day Deutschmanns will not find these blog posts on their relatives anywhere near the top of their search results. For war memorial research, I have a number of posts with advice for this elsewhere on this blog.
Sources The Soldiers’ Effects Records (1901–1929) are held by the National Army Museum, Chelsea, and have been digitised. You can find them on Ancestry and if you do not have an Ancestry subscription, your local library is likely to have a library subscription: ‘UK Army Register of Soldiers’ Effects’, https://www.ancestry.co.uk/search/collections/60506/, accessed 25/4/2020.
The mystery man Readers who have come across my Ham Remembers blog post on Alec Willows will know that, in many respects, he was, and still is, a man of mystery. Part of the mystery is that he is not commemorated on the Ham War Memorial and is thought not ever to have resided in the parish. Yet his name was on an interim, handwritten Roll of Honour in the Parish Church, added to in the course of the Great War, as news of fatalities reached the parish. Identifying his connection turned out to be a more difficult search than finding why Ernest Parsons was commemorated on this memorial. Who the heck was Alec?
For the three censuses in which Alec is recorded—1891, 1901 and 1911—there is conflicting evidence for his birthplace and for his age. I located him first of all in the 1911 Census, as a Bombardier serving in the Royal Field Artillery at Headley in Hampshire. That census recorded his age as 28 and his birthplace as Eastbourne. One might suppose, as I did, that the Army would have based this age on some documentation or information provided to them when he enlisted. If this age was calculated with any accuracy, and if one can rule out a transcription error, at the time his details were transferred to the census summary sheet, this would mean he was born in 1882 or 1883.
I went on to Alec in the 1901 Census, when he was enumerated at 26 Southlands Road, Bromley, aged 16, and with his birthplace recorded simply as ‘London’. He was described, moreover, as the ‘adopted son’ of Ellen Tracey, the head of the household, and a widow, aged 55. If this age was accurate, Alec was born in 1884 or 1885. I was curious about the connection, and have to admit to having wondered whether Alec was the natural child of either George Tracey or his wife, Ellen Tracey, née Reason. It took a while to be able to rule that possibility out.
Despite being armed with conflicting information from the 1901 and 1911 censuses, I was able to find Alec’s whereabouts in 1891. Ancestry had conspired, as it often does, to mistranscribe his entry but I eventually matched him to the David Alexn(sic)Williams (sic) in the household of George and Ellen Trang (sic) aged 6, and described as a ‘boarder’. All the members of the Trang family in this household match, apart from their surname, the names and ages of the members of George and Ellen Tracey and their children, in earlier as well as subsequent censuses. The age of Alec in this census is consistent and his birthplace is given as London—N. K. (Not Known). It appears that the Tracey family believed their boarder turned adopted son had been born somewhere in London.
As for his parentage and his birth, it may be some time before those details can be clarified. I have, of course, searched for the registration of his birth, but not found it in England, Wales or Scotland, nor in any of the regions or districts that could be included in a broad interpretation of either London or Eastbourne. In my searches I have entered as first names David and/or Alexander, and for surnames I’ve used Willows, and even Williams and Tracey, searching for similar sounding and phonetic variations. I’ve considered illegitimacy, maternal post-natal mortality, illness or imbecility. I’ve used a wide range of possible birth years, but I cannot yet identify his mother.
Over one hundred years after his death, the families of Ellen Reason and of Emily Spencer have different perceptions of his relationship with their relative. Both families had been led to understand, that their relative was Alec’s fiancée. Did this fearless Serjeant hesitate to commit himself because he could not bear to disappoint one of them?
Emily Spencer of Bromley (1883–1965) About ten years ago, Ellen Reason’s great-nephew, Christopher, and Emily Spencer’s great-niece, Claire, made contact with each other online, via Ancestry. They shared documents and photos, in the course of which an alternative story unfolded about their respective great aunts. Emily and Ellen each believed, until the end of her life, that she was Alec’s ‘intended’.
It seems that the two women knew of each other—certainly the letter that Alec’s Commanding Officer, Major Ballingall, sent to Ellen Reason, following Alec’s death, was in Emily Spencer’s possession at the time of her death. The letter itself increases the mystery about Emily since the salutation, “Dear Miss Reason” seems to have been altered to read “Dear Miss Spencer“.
Emily is likely to have met Alec when Ellen Tracey, his adoptive mother, moved her family to Bromley, following the death of her husband. The Spencer family had also moved to Bromley—from their home in Gravesend—and were living at 22 Bourne Road, a road parallel to, and only one block away from, Southlands Road, where the Tracey family, including Alec, were living at number 26. Alec and Emily were almost certainly good friends by the time he enlisted: a photo of Alec, taken about the time he joined the army, was among Emily’s possessions. She may have been given it as his ‘sweetheart’.
Alec had been employed locally as a rent collector, until his enlistment in the Royal Field Artillery, towards the end of the Anglo-Boer War, the first war in which news of battles in distant parts of the Empire could rapidly reach those ‘at Home’. By the end of the 19th century almost everyone under the age of 30 had benefitted from at least five years of compulsory education and could read newspaper reports of war and be inspired, alas, by the prospect the army offered of adventure and ‘thrills’. Was this what attracted Alec to the army? There was also the opportunity, during military service, to acquire a trade or skills that would provide stability and a decent income on when the 12 years was up, and the soldier returned to civilian life.
The birth of Emily Hester Spencer was registered in the fourth quarter of 1883. She was baptised at Holy Trinity, Tulse Hill on 10 February 1884, the second of the four children of William Spencer, a house painter, and his wife, Amelia Elizabeth Payne. At the turn of the century, Emily was a dressmaker, as was her elder sister, Ada Lucy, both still at home with their parents and two younger brothers John William and William Arthur. By 1911, only Emily was still living at home. Perhaps by then, she was in love with Alec, a young man, about to embark on a military career that would end only with his death. He appears to have been popular with his fellow soldiers, and by his sorrowing commanding officer, Major Harry Miller Ballingall, who was to describe him as ‘my best Serjeant and a very good comrade”.
Emily’s other life as a military nurse
Emily had taken steps, as soon as war broke out, to contribute to the War Effort, by preparing to train as a Voluntary Aid Detachment nurse. First she was required to complete introductory courses in First Aid (completed in December 1914) and in Home Nursing (completed in April 1915). Further training followed with an examination and certificate in First Aid to the Injured in November 1915. In July 1918, at the time of the first and milder wave of the 1918 pandemic, Emily was again sent on a course in Home Nursing. By October 1918, she would certainly have been exposed to the risks of nursing patients in the more deadly wave of the 1918 pandemic which was at its height from then until the Spring of 1919.
In the aftermath of the war, and the resulting ‘Great Silence’ Emily became a founder member of the Paddington Nursing Division, later renamed the St Marylebone Nursing Division. We know that she participated in its divisional meetings throughout the period between the wars.
In 1930, the Paddington Nursing Division was registered as a Voluntary Aid Detachment. By the end of the decade, Emily was in her mid-50s, the age at which women of that age were taking their pensions.
By maintaining her involvement with the Nursing Division, Emily was one of those called up when war was declared. She was immediately deployed to Millbank Barracks, under whose ‘direction’ she was to work for 9 years. During that time she was deployed to a number of hospitals and military hospitals in London and the Home Counties.
After the war, Emily worked for a period at the Hertford Bishop Hospital in Paris. Her release testimonial in July 1948 describes her Military Conduct as Exemplary and goes on to say:
She hasan excellent record and has had first class reports from all officers under whom she has served. A most efficient nurse, a conscientious nurse, and shows a keen interest in the comfort and welfare of her charges.
Her service in the military hospitals and further afield was acknowledged in the medals she was awarded at the end of the Second World War.
Emily deserves to be remembered, not merely for the mystery surrounding the man she loved, but also for the dedication and care she displayed in her nursing of wounded servicemen between, and during, two world wars. Often, as she tended them, she must have been reminded of ‘her’ Alec, who had not been killed instantly, but who had died after suffering grave injuries. Her service in military institutions and hospitals, nursing the injured and caring for those who had suffered life-changing injuries, was reflected and honoured in the nursing medals that her devotion had earned.
Emily was also a much-loved daughter, sister, aunt and great-aunt. She did not marry and died in Bromley, in 1965.
Ellen Reason of Ham(1880–1961) The Register of Soldiers’ Effects records “Miss Ellen Reason” as Alec’s sole legatee. After locating this document, my next question was what the relationship might have been between Ellen Reason and Alec Willows? By taking the line of Ellen Tracey, Alec’s ‘adopted mother’ back to her parents, and of Ellen’s father, William Reason of Ham, back to his parents, it became clear to me that Ellen Tracey was the elder sister of William Reason. Alec’s ‘adopted mother’ was the aunt of her namesake, the younger Ellen Reason.
In the photograph above, Ellen is in the centre of the back row. William and Eliza’s eldest three children, Ellen, Ada and Arthur were born in Ireland, where their father was stationed in the early years of the 1880s. William’s mother had died when he was a toddler, and he and his step-mother did not, unfortunately, get on. As soon as possible, William left the family home in Suffolk and joined the army. After 12 years’ service in India and Ireland, it was the recommendation of an officer that led to his finding work as a Coachman and Groom in Richmond, a move that ultimately brought the family to Ham. Numerous Army Officers had connections with Ham, and it would be interesting to know whether one of them was responsible for the family’s ending up at 3 Victoria Terrace, home to the Reason family for well over 60 years.
Ellen was so deeply affected by Alec’s death that she, like Emily, never married. She was to cherish a locket containing a lock of Alec’s hair, until the end of her life, more than half a century later. As Alec’s sole legatee, Ellen was the recipient of the letter from Alec’s Commanding Officer, which described Alec as “my very best Serjeant”. It was probably Alec’s closeness to his ‘adoptive’ cousins in Ham, and to his relationship with Ellen in particular, that resulted in his name being written on the Interim Roll of Honour in Ham’s Parish Church. When decisions were made as to who ‘belonged’ to the parish, Alec’s name was not, however, included with those inscribed on the permanent War Memorial.
Just skimming one more pebble…am I going to discover other women in Alec’s life, when their descendants type “Alec Willows” into a search engine?
Sources Edge, C.L., My sweetheart is somewhere in France, published privately. This is the story of Emily’s life. Her great-niece, Claire, has been researching her family for many years, her curiosity having been aroused at the age of eight, when she was told that her great-aunt’s fiancée had been killed in the Great War.
Museum and Library of the Order of St John, Correspondence with C.L.Edge, dated 18 June 1996, containing information on the wartime career (1940–1950) of Emily Spencer.
Acknowledgements To Christopher Reason and Claire Edge for sharing with me information about their respective great aunts, Ellen and Emily, and for their generosity in allowing me to include their family photographs in the relevant blog posts.
I spent a highly satisfactory fifteen minutes in the Shelter bookshop in Stockbridge just over a week ago, and came away with some finds, which included Doris Hawkins’s Atlantic Torpedo. The book’s sub-title is ‘the record of 27 days in an open boat, following a U-boat sinking’.
Once I’d read the slim volume (41 pages of text), I embarked on what @Dave_Lifelines (of Lifelines Research) might justifiably describe as “fanciful hogwash”. On this blog, and on my various War Memorial blogs, I’ve gone down this alleyway many times, as in this post ‘A very dear, polite, old South African regular’ but I am, perhaps, most proud of having identified the ‘Laura’ in the tattoo of a soldier on the Ham War Memorial. A case of unrequited love, alas—for ‘his’ Laura was to become the war widow of another soldier on that memorial.
With Atlantic Torpedo, I was less ambitious. I decided to follow up the bare details provided by Doris Hawkins—the individual’s surname, plus role—to find out a little more about that particular lifeboat’s passengers., using simply the CWGC database. By providing their full names and details below, I hope that relatives of the people identified below may discover this post and learn that this book provides a first-hand account of the lifeboat’s voyage.
William Edward Henderson, Fourth Engineer, Ship’s Officer. He was 23. He was the son of Charles and Eva Henderson. (p.23)
Geoffrey Charles Purslow, Surgeon, Merchant Navy. M.B, Ch.B, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. Dr Purslow was 26 and the son of 2/Lt George Purslow and of Mabel Beatrice Purslow of Chadderton Heath, Staffordshire. He died 19 days after the sinking. (p.29)
Lieut. Leopold John Tillie, R.N, D.S.C. and Bar, aged 23. He was the son of Lieut.-Col. W. Kingsley Tillie D.S.O, M.C. and Victoria H C Tillie of Westward Ho, Devon. (p.10–11)
31298 Squadron Leader Horace Rudyard Kenneth Wells R.A.F., died 28 September 1942, aged 26. He was the son of Horace and Annie Wells, and is commemorated on the Alamein Memorial. (p.18)
The baby, Sally was Sally Kay Readman, aged 14 months, of 31 Sharia Mohamed Mazhar Pasha, Zamalek, Cairo. Her parents are not named on the CWGC database. (p.7 and p.9)
Interestingly, the date of death provided for all those who perished on the voyage in the lifeboat is the date of the sinking of S.S. Laconia, Saturday 12 September 1942, even though it’s clear that many died considerably later.
Searching the CWGC database, by date of death, in order to identify Doris’s friend Mary, I found there were 468 names which I filtered down to the 19 Civilian deaths on that day. Fifteen of those were casualties of the S.S. Laconia. Mary turned out to be The Lady Grizel Mary Wolfe Murray, daughter of Captain the Earl of Glasgow, RN, DSO and the Countess of Glasgow, of Kelburn Castle, Glasgow, and wife of Major Malcolm Victor Alexander Wolfe Murray, The Black Watch.
There is more to Mary’s story and the clues can be found in one of the hyperlinks listed below for further reading, should any readers feel compelled to fill in the missing bits. There is always a fix for those burdened with insatiable curiosity.
Commonwealth War Graves Commission, https://www.cwgc.org/, accessed 4/3/2019.
Further Reading or viewing
Dimbleby, J., ‘Gloves Off: The Battle of the Atlantic’, https://www.historynet.com/battle-of-atlantic-laconia.htm, accessed 4/3/2019.
Hall, D.W., ‘Now is the hour’, http://www.nowisthehour.co.uk/the-story/, accessed 4/3/2019.
Hawkins, D. M., Atlantic Torpedo, London, 1943. Reprinted 1969, Bath.
Wikipedia, ‘Laconia Incident’, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laconia_incident, accessed 4/3/2019.
I’ve uploaded a short post about a soldier who caught my eye at the CWGC South African Cemetery at Castiglione dei Pepoli.
He is Guardsman Walter Hardy Geddes (1924–1944) of the Scots Guards. You’ll notice, I’ve attached this to my South Africa Remembers blog. The 24th Guards Brigade was attached to the 6th South African Armoured Brigade and those killed in Italy, are buried alongside their allies.
I’ve been trying out the newly released CWGC apps this week. One app is for the men behind the names on the panels of the Thiepval Memorial, which has been receiving a great deal of attention this year, and the other is for people who are looking for CWGC War Graves or Cemeteries. You can download these apps, free of charge on the Apple Store or on Google Play depending on the device you’re going to use them on. To access some aspects of these apps, you will need to be online, but there is still much that you can view without having to go online.
While this post focuses on the Thiepval Memorial app, you will be able to read an overview of the War Graves app in a separate post on this blog.
The Thiepval Memorial commemorates over 72 000 soldiers, by far the majority of whom were serving in either the British or the South African Forces, and who died before 20 March 2018 and have no knowngrave. The cut-off date for this Memorial was the start of the German Spring Offensive, also known as the Kaiserschlacht. Tap on THIEPVALon the opening screen and you’ll come across information about the Memorial and its location.
If you are looking for a particular soldier, you simply go to FIND A CASUALTY and search on the surname. I searched on BIDDULPH because I have written up some of the story of Victor Roundell George Biddulph for Petersham Remembers, one of my war memorial blogs, and from that research I know that he is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial.
There was only one Biddulph summary in the search results. If there’s more than one search result, you’ll have to tap on your target’s name to view the details unique to him which will appear on the right of the summary.
The image below captures what appears to the right of Victor’s summary. This area is headed by the following four tabs
INFO, the basic information for the soldier;
his STORY, if available—here the icon is faint, showing that no story has been uploaded for him;
a PLAN of the memorial, on which the section with panels showing the soldiers’ names can be found and finally
an image of the name in its place on the PANEL.
ON THIS DAY delivers the story behind a man on this Memorial who died on that day’s date. I’m viewing it on 17 September 2018 and the related story is for 17 September 1916. The soldier is C/12802 Sergeant Frederick George Blomeley of the 21st Battalion of the King’s Royal Rifle Corps. He was a trainee teacher at Leeds Training College but had enlisted on 8 December 1915. He was rapidly promoted to Sergeant, reaching that rank in less than three months after enlisting. Six months later he was dead, killed during an attack on Flers. He was only 20. Searches continued to be made for bodies in that area until well after the war, but none were found.
There is as yet no story for our Victor Biddulph. To see the 600 men whose stories are told, go back to the opening screen, and tap on THE 600. Tap on one of the 600 photos, and the screen will display a larger image, and some information. Most war memorial researchers are thrilled to find a photo of a serviceman whom they have researched. It’s a great pity that so few photos have survived. After the Armistice, the War Office asked each deceased soldier’s next of kin to provide a photo of the relative who had died on active service. Some of them gave the only photo they had.
The TIMELINEprovided is sobering, revealing the number of casualties suffered on The Somme day by day, until the cut-off date on 20 March 1918.
On no account should you skip DID YOU KNOW? This offers you fascinating themes to explore! Do you wonder how many brothers died on The Somme? How many casualties on the British ‘side’ were of other nationalities? Tap on the country, and up they pop. Apart from the United Kingdom with 71208 and South Africa with 824, a further 219 men came from 25 other countries. Besides all these, there are also categories for Sportsmen, Artists and those awarded the Victoria Cross.
I do think, though, that they might have spared those listed asSHOT AT DAWN.
Visiting the Scottish National War Memorial in the grounds of Edinburgh Castle arouses in me similar emotions to visiting Delville Wood on the Somme, or the graves of soldiers from West Africa in the cemetery at Dido’s Valley. Sometimes it’s the sheer scale of the burials, sometimes the poignancy of the wording on a headstone, or the distance of the cemetery from the bereaved families, that I find hard to contemplate.
The Scottish National War Memorial: this zone commemorates Scots serving in Scottish regiments based outside Scotland
I was at the Scottish National War Memorial last week intending to look for the memorial book in which I had been told a relative of James Douglas Cockburn ‘thought’ his name was recorded. It’s one of three such books placed in front of this memorial. The 4th South African Infantry Regiment, known as The South African Scottish, was raised as follows: A Company was raised from soldiers serving in the Cape Town Highlanders, B and C Companies from the first two battalions of the Transvaal Scottish Regiment, while D Company was raised with the ‘encouragement’ of the Caledonian Societies of Natal and the Orange Free State. If you visited the exhibition in the Scottish National Museum in 1914, you may have been struck by a huge image depicting a group of soldiers in the South African Scottish in their kilts, taken in June 1918.
James Douglas Cockburn served in the London Scottish in the Great War and his name is recorded on the Ham War Memorial, one of several war memorials, that I have been researching in the London area. It’s not unusual to find Londoners serving in Scottish regiments and on Ham war memorial we have, besides the London Scottish, two from the Scots Guards, and others in The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles), the Seaforth Highlanders and the Highland Light Infantry. Sometimes, such as is the case with the War Memorial in Trinity United Reformed Church in Wimbledon, at least fifty percent of the surnames are clearly Scottish.
Here is the entry for which I was looking.
James Cockburn in the London Scottish Memorial Book.